AN EXEMPLARY MUSLIM WOMAN
MARYAM : AN EXEMPLARY MUSLIM WOMAN
The Nature of Her Society
According to historical sources, Allah honored
Maryam, who lived approximately two millennia ago, with the birth
of Prophet 'Isa (as). She was one of the chosen women on Earth as
well as in the Hereafter. Born in Roman-occupied Palestine, she
was a Jewess and lived in the Jewish community.
Idolatry was Rome's state religion. The Jews, once
a nation preferred by Allah "over all other
beings" (Surat al-Baqara: 47), had altered His religion,
adopted false beliefs, rebelled against Allah's commands, and were
no longer grateful for His gifts to them. Some of them even murdered
the Prophets sent to them by the grace of Allah, because the Jews
did not like the commands that these exalted men conveyed. The Qur'an
reveals their transgressions:
We made a covenant with the tribe
of Israel and sent Messengers to them. Each time a Messenger came
to them with something their lower selves did not desire, they
denied some and they murdered others. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 70)
Maryam was born at a chaotic time, when the Jews'
only hope was their expected Messiah (savior). Unknown to her, Allah
had already determined to choose and raise her for this holy duty.
She was central to the Israelites' expectations, for she would give
birth to Prophet 'Isa (as), whom He compliments in the following
terms: "His name is the Messiah, 'Isa, son
of Maryam, of high esteem in this world and the Hereafter, and one
of those brought near. He will speak to people in the cradle and
when fully grown, and will be one of the believers" (Surah
Al 'Imran: 45-46).
Allah chose Maryam to represent morality and
true religion among her people, who had left the true religion and
embraced superstitions and idle speculation. Allah reveals many
aspects of her life, among them her birth and family, the birth
of Prophet 'Isa (as), her superior character, and how she resisted
her society's slanders and accusations.
Allah Exalts 'Imran's Family
Allah reveals that "Allah
chose Adam and Nuh, and the family of Ibrahim and the family of
'Imran, over all other beings-descendants one of the other..."
(Surah Al 'Imran: 33-34). In other words, 'Imran's family descended
from the Prophets Adam (as), Nuh (as), and Ibrahim (as), and they
were exalted people. One of these chosen people was Maryam, whose
family sincerely believed in Allah, respected the limits that He
has established for humanity, and always sought and trusted Him.
When `Imran's wife, a sincere believer, found out
that she was pregnant with Maryam, she immediately prayed to Allah.
She praised Him and promised that she would dedicate her child to
Him. When she gave birth to a girl, she named her Maryam,
which means to abide, in other words someone who incessantly
worships Allah. Allah reveals her prayer in the following verse:
Remember when the wife of 'Imran
said: "My Lord, I have vowed to You whatever is in my womb, to
be devoted [to Your service]. Please accept it from me. You are
the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." When she gave birth, she said:
"My Lord! I have given birth to a girl"-and Allah knew very well
what she had given birth to, male and female are not the same-"and
I have named her Maryam and placed her and her children in Your
safekeeping from Satan, the accursed." (Surah Al 'Imran: 35-36)
The Arabic word muharreren,
translated here as devoted [to Your service],
means "preoccupied only with the Hereafter and having no interest
in the world, in the service of Allah's temple, worshipping in great
devotion, one whose worship is not tainted by worldly aims."1
True freedom can be attained only by serving Allah,
surrendering to Him, and freeing oneself from all service to any
other beings or values. This is what 'Imran's wife prayed for when
dedicating Maryam to Allah, for she wished her daughter to be someone
who served only Allah and who did not seek her people's or society's
Right after Maryam's birth, her mother turned toward
Allah, sought His good pleasure, and asked Him to protect Maryam,
as well as her children, from Satan's evil. Allah accepted this
wholehearted prayer "and made her [Maryam]
grow in health and beauty" (Surah Al 'Imran: 37). In other
words, Maryam received the best upbringing and the most superior
Maryam's mother's wholehearted faith in Allah,
acceptance of only Allah as her mentor, constant turning toward
Him, and her genuine surrender to Him are very important examples
upon which all believers should reflect.
Allah Commissions Prophet
Zakariyya (as) with Educating Maryam
Allah gave Prophet Zakariyya (as) sincere faith
and exalted him, and guided him to the righteous path. Allah compliments
him and points out his devotion, his proper fear and respect of
Him, and his superior character:
And Zakariyya, Yahya, 'Isa, and
Ilyas. All of them were among the believers. And Isma'il, al-Yasa',
Yunus, and Lut. All of them We favored over all beings. And some
of their forebears, descendants, and brothers; We chose them and
guided them to a straight path. (Surat al An'am: 85-87)
The Qur'an reveals that Allah made Prophet Zakariyya
(as) responsible for educating Maryam. He fulfilled this trust,
witnessed the many miracles in her life, and noticed that she was
favored over all other people. He saw how Allah's grace supported
her and met all of her needs. For example:
And Zakariyya became her guardian.
Every time Zakariyya visited her in the sanctuary, he found food
with her. He asked: "Maryam, how did you come by this?" She said:
"It is from Allah. Allah provides for whoever He wills without
any reckoning." (Surah Al 'Imran: 37)
Maryam's answer to his question testifies to Allah's
grace and providence.
Allah Preferred Maryam over
All Other Women
Maryam was a most devout Muslim who genuinely dedicated
herself to our Lord, praised His name, and turned toward Him in
prayer constantly throughout her life. Just as Allah chose 'Imran's
family above all others, He chose Maryam and ensured that she would
be educated in the best manner, purified from all wickedness, and
preferred above all other women. Allah relates her superiority:
And when the angels said: "Maryam,
Allah has chosen you and purified you. He has chosen you over
all other women. Maryam, obey your Lord and prostrate and bow
with those who bow." (Surah Al 'Imran: 42-43)
Maryam's Exemplary Chastity
Maryam, like the rest of her family, was known
among her people for her devotion to Allah as well as her religiosity,
chastity, and sincerity. Allah speaks of her as someone obedient
And Maryam, the daughter of 'Imran,
who guarded her chastity-We breathed Our Spirit into her. She
confirmed the Words of her Lord and His Book, and was one of the
obedient. (Surat at-Tahrim: 12)
. and she who guarded her chastity.
We breathed into her some of Our Spirit and made her and her son
a Sign for all the worlds. (Surat al-Anbiya': 91)
Maryam Meets Jibril
Maryam experienced many miracles throughout her
life. One of these was her meeting with Jibril. Once, when she left
her family and society and went toward the east, she met Jibril,
who appeared to her in the form of a well-built man:
Mention Maryam in the Book, how
she withdrew from her people to an eastern place and concealed
herself from them. Then We sent Our Spirit to her, and it took
on for her the form of a handsome, well-built man. (Surah Maryam:
Not knowing who this man was, she sought refuge
with Allah and told him that she held Allah in the utmost fear and
respect: "She said: 'I seek refuge from you
with the All-Merciful, [leave me] if you have fear [and respect]
of Allah'" (Surah Maryam: 18). Her words clearly demonstrate
her complete trust in Allah, as well as the importance she placed
upon chastity and devotion to Allah. Her words not only expressed
all of this, but also called upon this unknown man to have fear
and respect of Allah.
Jibril introduced himself with the following
words: "I am only your Lord's messenger [an angel]
so that He can give you a pure boy" (Surah Maryam: 19). As
the Qur'an recounts:
When the angels said: "Maryam,
your Lord gives you good news of a Word from Him. His name is
the Messiah, 'Isa, son of Maryam, of high esteem in this world
and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near." (Surah Al 'Imran:
Maryam replied: "How can
I have a boy when no man has touched me and I am not an unchaste
woman?" (Surah Maryam: 20), thereby indicating her chastity.
Jibril told her that:
He [Jibril] said: "It will be
so." Allah creates whatever He wills. When He decides on something,
He just says to it, "Be!" and it is. (Surah Al 'Imran: 47)
He said: "It will be so." Your
Lord says: "That is easy for Me. It is so that We can make him
a Sign for humanity and a mercy from Us. It is a matter already
decreed." So she conceived him and withdrew with him to a distant
place. (Surah Maryam: 21-22)
By Allah's will, Maryam became pregnant with Prophet
'Isa (as) and yet remained a virgin. Her pregnancy was independent
of this world's usual cause-and-effect relationship. The circumstances
of his conception were among the features of Prophet 'Isa's (as)
Allah reveals "So she conceived
him and withdrew with him to a distant place" (Surah Maryam:
22). In this distant place to which she retreated, Allah supported
her with His grace and protection and met all of her material and
psychological needs during her pregnancy.
No doubt, Maryam withdrew from her society for
many reasons. For example, Allah removed her from her people's criticism,
for they could not understand her miraculous situation. This also
enabled her to spend this period in a state of contentment and peace.
Later on, by another miracle, Allah revealed her miraculous circumstances,
refuted all of the accusations and slanders directed toward her,
and restored her impeccable reputation.
Prophet `Isa's (as) Birth
and Allah's Support of Maryam
Allah fully supported Maryam throughout her pregnancy.
It is very difficult for a woman to give birth, a potentially life-threatening
experience, all alone, without medical equipment or a midwife's
assistance. Nevertheless, Maryam overcame all of these difficulties
by placing her complete trust in Allah. Allah helped her with revelations
while she was struggling toward a date tree in the full throes of
labor pains. Allah told her not to grieve, that He had placed a
stream at her feet, and that she should shake the date tree in order
to get freshly ripe dates to eat. He also told her to drink and
to delight her eyes. As a result, she gave birth in the best possible
circumstances. Allah reveals her situation:
The pains of labor drove her
to the trunk of a date-palm. She exclaimed: "Oh, if only I had
died before this time and was something discarded and forgotten!"
A voice called out to her from under her: "Do not grieve. Your
Lord has placed a small stream at your feet. Shake the trunk of
the palm toward you, and fresh, ripe dates will drop down to you.
Eat and drink, and delight your eyes. If you should see anyone
at all, just say: 'I have made a vow of abstinence to the All-Merciful,
and [so] today I will not speak to any human being.'" (Surah Maryam:
Allah's grace and protection was clearly visible
in this situation. In fact, His advice to her has been confirmed
by modern science. We now analyze this advice in some detail.
Do Not Grieve
As stated earlier, Maryam withdrew from her society
so that she could be in a psychologically peaceful environment and
away from the hurtful behavior of people who could not comprehend
her miraculous situation.
Allah told her not to grieve and bestowed His
grace and protection upon her. No doubt, there was much wisdom in
this advice, just as there was in Maryam's withdrawal to a distant
place. Muslims must not surrender to sadness; rather, they are to
trust in Allah and feel the peace of mind that comes with knowing
that Allah will always help them.
This attitude, which is required of all believers,
has been confirmed by modern medicine, for doctors tell women, both
during their pregnancy and while they are giving birth, to maintain
a positive attitude and avoid any sadness and stress. His advice
to delight her eyes means not to surrender to sadness and
to enjoy the news of Allah's gift.
Allah advised Maryam to eat freshly ripened dates.
Today, such dates are considered to be food and medicine. Scientists
now know that dates contain more than ten substances considered
essential for the human body's well-being and continuing health.
Dates contain plenty of the easily digested and
absorbed sugars that give the human body its energy for heat and
movement. More importantly, these sugars are of the fructose type
and not of the glucose type, which quickly raises the blood-sugar
levels. Dates provide energy, help muscle tissues and nerve cells
develop, and are especially beneficial for people weakened by illness
or those suffering from exhaustion, because of their high caloric
value. For example, 100 grams of dates contain 1.5 grams of protein
and 50 grams of carbohydrates. In addition, their caloric value
is 225 kcal. Fresh dates have a 60-65 percent sugar content and
a 2 percent protein content.
Modern medical findings suggest that dates benefit
women who are almost ready to give birth. Doctors now advise pregnant
women to take fructose-containing foods on their due dates, for
such foods provide energy used by the weakened body to revitalize
itself, have a trigger effect on the milk hormones and thus help
the woman's body produce milk, and also increase the volume of that
reveals some of the wisdom inherent in Allah's advice to Maryam.
Another matter worth reflecting upon is the little stream created
by Allah and His advice for her to eat and drink. Now, scientists
inform us that people can survive on dates and water for years,
because they contain all of the necessary essentials for human life.2
In fact, one renowned expert on the subject, V. H. W. Dowson, suggests
that one glass of milk and one date per day provides a person's
daily nutritional requirements.3
Any blessing you have is from Allah.
Then when harm touches you, you cry to Him for help.
(Surat an-Nahl, 53)
Dates contain various vitamins (e.g., A, beta-carotene,
B1, B2, B3, and B6) and minerals, (e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, fiber, iron, sulphur, phosphorus, and chlorine) and are
also rich in fiber, fats, and proteins. Some of the ensuing benefits
are as follows:
A date's nutritional value is based on the balance
between its minerals. During the prolonged period of morning sickness
and the altering physiognomy, a shortage of potassium occurs
and needs to be supplemented. This fruit's high potassium content
is certainly welcome here, as its role in preserving the body's
Iron controls the red blood cells' synthesis
of hemoglobin, which prevents anemia during pregnancy and also regulates
the blood's RBC balance, which is so crucial for the baby's development.
Due to its high iron content, one-and-a-half dates can meet the
body's total iron requirement and thus prevent all complaints caused
by a lack of iron.
Calcium and phosphorus are very
important elements in developing and balancing the skeleton and
the bone structures. Dates protect the body from anemia and weak
bones, and thus reduce the risk of such illnesses with their high
nutritional value and high phosphorus, calcium,
and iron content.
Scientists point out that dates
can reduce stress and tension levels. Research done at Berkeley
University revealed that dates are rich in vitamin B1 (the "nerve
vitamin") and magnesium (essential for muscle functions), both of
which are essential for a strong nervous system. Magnesium
is also very important for the kidneys, and two or three dates per
day are enough to meet all of the human body's magnesium requirements.4
Dates also contain folic acid (vitamin
B9), which is essential for pregnant women, due to its important
role in forming new blood cells, producing amino acids, and developing
new cells. As a result, a pregnant woman needs double the usual
daily amount of folic acid. If the body's folic acid levels fall
below the required amount, bigger but less functional red blood
cells are formed and anemia occurs.
Allah's advice to Maryam to
eat dates could be an indication to their beneficial vitamins
Folic acid, which is crucial to developing the
cell's genetic makeup and division, is the only substance that must
be doubled during pregnancy. Dates are very rich in folic acid.
During pregnancy, a woman's daily
vitamin A requirement increases to 800 ug. Dates are very
rich in the foremost vitamin A: beta-carotene.5
Most other fruits are protein-poor,
but dates have good protein content.6
Oxytocin is used in modern
medicine to accelerate labor and is often referred as "rapid birth."
It also increases the level of milk production following birth.7
Our Prophet (saas) pointed out
the benefits of dates in the following hadith: A family that
has dates will not be hungry.8 This is
a piece of very good advice.
All of our current information on dates reveals
Allah's infinite wisdom and grace upon Maryam, who, inspired by
Allah, satisfied all of her nutritional needs by eating dates and
thereby eased her child's birth. (Allah knows best.)
Allah Creates a Stream
Allah told Maryam that He had placed a stream by
her feet to eat, drink, and delight her eyes.
Water, like dates, eases labor pains and regulates
muscle tension. In fact, some modern birth clinics have pools in
which the delivery takes place.
Blood loss during birth causes
the body's blood sugar levels to drop. Dates, which have a sugar
content in excess of 50 percent, are very nutritional and provide
more than enough of the body's requirements.
Water, which is necessary for
life and one's physical well-being, plays an important role in regulating
the body's temperature, transporting nutritional elements and oxygen,
and removing waste matter from the body's cells. It also ensures
the healthy movement of joints, skin moisture and elasticity, the
digestive system, and protects tissues and organs. Water is becoming
more widely used in therapy by the day. Contact with water stimulates
the immune system, increases anti-stress hormone production, reduces
pain, and stimulates blood circulation and metabolism.9
Water is important during pregnancy for several
reasons. At that time, water intake is especially necessary because
the volume of blood increases and because of the developing baby's
needs. Women who choose to breast-feed need plenty of water to produce
the necessary amount of milk. Considering that 87 percent of this
milk is water, we can see how important this production is.
Water also maintains the electrolyte balances in
the blood of the mother and the child. Hormones released during
pregnancy alter the way various body fluids are used. Toward the
end of the woman's pregnancy, blood volume increases 150 percent,
and the loss of water through breathing is much greater. The amnion
fluid, in which the baby grows, is renewed every three hours. However,
it can decrease, as in the case of dehydration caused by insufficient
Dehydration during pregnancy also can cause
premature labor. Some hormones released in such situations imitate
the hormones that trigger labor pains. Cases in which premature
birth is a significant risk are treated by giving fluids through
the veins, a procedure that highlights the importance of water intake.
Such premature tensions are often cured by this fluid therapy.
forms the human body's transport system. Via the bloodstream, it
carries food and oxygen to the embryo and helps prevent some common
infections that can cause miscarriage or premature labor and birth.
Sufficient water intake reduces the risks of such infections.10
Doctors inform their patients that their water requirement increases
by 50 percent during pregnancy. If the water intake is insufficient,
the body reduces the quantity of some fluids, which, in turn, causes
Modern science shows once more the wisdom in Allah's
creation of the stream for Maryam and His advice to eat dates and
drink water. All of this is evidence of Allah's infinite knowledge.
Maryam Shakes the Date Tree
Allah tells Maryam to shake the
date tree toward her when she was headed toward it in her labor
pains. (Surah Maryam: 25)
Doctors say that pulling something
toward oneself during labor can have a positive effect on the muscles.
In order to ease labor pains and help bring about a safe delivery,
women are advised to do certain exercises that reduce pressure in
the body and, therefore, the risk of complications during delivery.
They are also thought to quicken the process of giving birth.12
Doctors suggest that in the second stage of labor,
the woman's head should be slightly raised to take advantage of
gravity. Thus, hospital delivery rooms have beds with suitably placed
handles and footrests that enable pregnant women to give birth in
the most comfortable position.
Other practitioners advise their
patients to squat or sit on specially adapted birth chairs. Before
recent technological developments, some birth rooms featured a rope
hanging from the ceiling, which the expectant mother was to use
to try and pull herself up, thus helping the birth process. All
of these methods are theoretically and logically helpful.13
Perhaps this is why Allah told Maryam to pull and shake the date
tree. (Allah knows best.)
Maryam Returns to Her Community
When Maryam returned with Prophet 'Isa (as), her
people could not comprehend Allah's miracle. Thus, they accused
her of indecency and slandered her, even though they knew that she,
being a member of 'Imran's family, was devout, held Allah in great
fear and respect, had an immaculate character, and always protected
her modesty. Allah reveals some of these slanders:
She brought him to her people,
carrying him. They exclaimed: "Maryam! You have done an unthinkable
thing! Sister of Harun, your father was not an evil man nor was
your mother an unchaste woman!" (Surah Maryam: 27-28)
No doubt, this was a trial for Maryam, for she
had to face such accusations despite being a chaste woman who held
Allah in the greatest respect and awe. These people ignored her
impeccable character and honorable conduct, despite her own reputation
and that of her family, and so, as always, she turned toward Allah,
and trusted in Him, knowing that He would defend her in the best
Maryam's Vows of Silence
Allah, Who always answered her prayers with
generosity and compassion, gave her inner peace during this trial.
Knowing that Allah would exonerate her completely, Allah inspired
her to make a vow: "If you should see anyone
at all, just say: 'I have made a vow of abstinence to the All-Merciful,
and today I will not speak to any human being'" (Surah Maryam:
26). This is what she told her people.
After this, she only pointed to Prophet 'Isa (as),
about whom Allah said through Jibril: "He
will speak to people in the cradle and when fully grown, and will
be one of the believers" (Surah Al 'Imran: 46), when people
confronted and slandered her.
Allah showed her people a great miracle by enabling
Prophet 'Isa (as) to speak while he was still a baby in the cradle.
Through his words, Allah exonerated his mother Maryam and also introduced
Prophet 'Isa (as) as one of His Prophets sent to the Israelites:
She pointed toward him. They
asked: "How can a baby in the cradle speak?" He ['Isa] said: "I
am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Book and made me
a Prophet. He has made me blessed wherever I am, directed me to
perform prayer and give alms [zakat] as long as I live, and to
show devotion to my mother. He has not made me insolent or arrogant.
Peace be upon me the day I was born and the day I die, and the
day I am raised up again alive." That is 'Isa, son of Maryam,
the Word of Truth about which they are in doubt. (Surah Maryam:
This miracle amazed Maryam's people. By saying:
"… and she who guarded her chastity.
We breathed into her some of Our Spirit and made her and her son
a Sign for all the worlds" (Surat al-Anbiya': 91), Allah
made both of them superior to all other people. Maryam's superior
character, honor, and purity were revealed through this speech,
and those who had slandered her were defeated.
By saying: "And We made the
son of Maryam and his mother a Sign and gave them shelter on a mountainside
where there was a meadow and a flowing spring" (Surat al-Mu'minun:
50), He reveals that Prophet 'Isa (as) and Maryam continued to live
under His grace after these events.
Those who Slandered Maryam
These miracles showed the Israelites that Allah
had made Maryam and Prophet 'Isa (as) superior to other people.
In fact, Allah reveals that those who continued to slander Maryam
would be punished severely:
And on account of their unbelief,
their utterance of a monstrous slander against Maryam, and their
saying: "We killed the Messiah, 'Isa, son of Maryam, Messenger
of Allah." They did not kill him and they did not crucify him,
but it was made to seem so to them. Those who argue about him
are in doubt about it. They have no real knowledge of it, just
conjecture. But they certainly did not kill him. (Surat an-Nisa':
Maryam's Superior Character
Maryam is a role model for all Muslim women because
she maintained her impeccable character throughout her life. Allah
raised her like a lovely plant, to use the Qur'an's expression,
and gave her a very important responsibility. Allah chose her, just
as He chose 'Imran's family, made her one person in this lineage
of the most devout and faithful people, and had her raised by these
He then gave her the character of a chosen and
superior Prophet by entrusting her education to Prophet Zakariyya
(as). When she reached this level of maturity, Allah began to show
her His miracles, and she clearly saw His grace, protection, and
mercy upon herself. One example of this support and grace was that
she found food on the altar whenever she worshipped Him. Later on,
Allah introduced her to Jibril, who told her about Allah's grace
on her with his own words.
Maryam demonstrated her genuine devotion and
loyalty to Allah through her impeccable virtue and behavior. She
also expressed her profound and genuine devotion to Him through
her determination, devotion, and unconditional surrender to His
Being alone in moments of great difficulty was
a great trial for her, because she had no one to help, support,
or guide her. Usually, lonely people surrender to helplessness and
sadness. But Maryam did not, for she placed all of her hope and
trust only in Allah.
She constantly sought His help and knew that she
only needed to obey Him and follow His guidance. She never gave
in to hopelessness and depression, no matter how difficult the trial,
because she had surrendered wholeheartedly to Allah in the knowledge
that He would turn all adversities into good and end the hardship
in the best manner. And with every difficulty, Allah gave her a
solution, supported her with His grace and help, and turned all
hardships into goodness and beauty.
Her inexperience was also an important aspect of
her trial. She became pregnant and delivered her child all alone.
Totally alone and ignorant of what to do, she resisted pessimism
and displayed her great strength, willpower, and determination.
In addition, she had the peace of mind characteristic of those who
know that Allah supports them with the most perfect gifts. Thus
He eased her burden and helped her to succeed.
Another sign of Maryam's superior character was
the patience she showed while fulfilling her difficult responsibilities.
Her unbelieving people tried her patience by failing to grasp her
superior and honorable position, viewing her according to their
own misguided knowledge, and accusing her of things that she had
not done. Here, too, she showed her patience and complete faith
in Allah. She did not compromise her strength, willpower, and integrity,
knowing full well that Allah controls everything and thus would
Another noticeable character trait was her total
lack of interest in winning her people's acceptance. She had surrendered
to Allah with a pure faith, and was therefore unaffected by their
accusations and comments. Given her faith and devotion, all she
strove to do was to behave in the way that would earn Allah's good
pleasure. As a result, Allah rewarded her with His grace.
There are two ways of conveying one's good character
to others: through words and through moral behavior. The second
way is far more effective and valuable, for it is the genuine way
and cannot be imitated. One's life and behavior can reflect one's
belief only if it is genuinely alive in one's heart.
Maryam displayed this superior morality and became
a role model and a living invitation to religion through her faith,
behavior, and character. Her genuine call is answered in the best
possible way, Allah willing. The believers' faith continues to deepen
as they follow Maryam's example and try to emulate her character.
1- Mahmud Alusi, Ruh al-Maani
fi Tafsir al-Qur'an (Beirut), 3:133-34; Ismail Hakki Bursevi, Ruhu'l
Beyan (Spritiual Meaning) (Istanbul: 1306 ah) 1:321
3- "Date and Health;" www.sgp-dates.com/date.htm
5- "Date Palm," Telmedpak Agriculture; www.telmedpak.com/agricultures.asp?a=agriculture&b=date_palm
7- "Break Your Fasting On Dates," Islamonline.net; http://22.214.171.124/English/Science/2000/7/article5.shtml;
"Mothering and Oxytocin or Hormonal Cocktails for Two," Sarah Blaffer
Hrdy and C. Sue Carter ; www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/oxytocin.html
8- Sahih Muslim hadiths.
10- "Preganancy and Water;" www.mumcu.com/html/article.php?sid=247
13- "The second stage of pregnancy;" www.mumcu.com/html/article.php?sid=43